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Title ix


Title IX prohibits gender discrimination in public and private schools that receive federal funding - which nearly all do. It requires schools to ensure that the percentage of male and female athletes is about equal to the ratio of men and women in their student bodies. Women now comprise 56% of the enrollment in our four-year colleges. Title IX is widely credited with increasing female participation in collegiate sports since it was passed in 1972. The number of girls participating in high school sports rose from 294,000 in 1971 to 3.4 million in 2018. The number of women in college sports increased fivefold over the same time. However, female participation rates, especially for girls of color, lag far behind male participation rates. Only 66% of Black and Latina girls play sports, while only half of Asian-American girls play sports, compared to more than 75% of White girls.

Female student athletes have been found to have higher levels of self-esteem and to be more likely to graduate from high school than female students who do not play sports. Although the availability of athletic scholarships often determines access to college, many schools fail to award proportional athletic financial aid to women, which can affect their future employment prospects and economic security.

Pending Legislation: S.2186 - Patsy T. Mink and Louise M. Slaughter Gender Equity in Education Act of 2021
Sponsor: Sen. Mazie Hirono (HI)
Status: Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
Chair: Sen. Patty Murray (WA)












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Poll Opening Date
July 4, 2022
Poll Closing Date
July 10, 2022


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